Annotated Bibliography

Prepare an annotated bibliography of the resources that are attached to the instructions. When completing the annotated bibliography make sure to put the citations in alphabetical order and not separated by website and article but as one in alphabetical order.

Please note  that the same rules for citation that apply to other documents (such as  proper paraphrasing and the use of quotation marks where necessary)  apply to Annotated Bibliographies as well. It is not acceptable to cut  and paste from the abstract or the body of an article. Rather, the  student is expected to read the article completely and appropriately  paraphrase the necessary material. For those few situations where  paraphrasing is not acceptable, then material that has not been  paraphrased needs to be placed in quotation marks.

Note that there are four sections to the entry for an annotated bibliography: hypothesis, methodology,  conclusion, and evaluation. Be sure to include each of these sections  in your annotated bibliography entries.

Length: 20 research articles and 10 scholarly sites

Your  annotated bibliography should demonstrate thoughtful consideration of  the ideas and concepts by providing new thoughts  and insights relating directly to this topic. Your response should  reflect scholarly writing and current APA standards.

Due: December 28, 2018 by 10pm EST

Assignment: Application Of Role Theory To A Case Study

This week, you will use role theory to apply to your chosen case study. In other words, your theoretical orientation—or lens—is role theory as you analyze the case study.

Use the same case study that you chose in Week 2. (Remember, you will be using this same case study throughout the entire course). Use the “Dissecting a Theory and Its Application to a Case Study” worksheet to help you dissect the theory. You do not need to submit this handout. It is a tool for you to use to dissect the theory, and then you can employ the information in the table to complete your assignment.

To prepare:

  • Review and focus on the same case study that you used in Week 2.
  • Review the websites and guides for developing PowerPoint skills found in the Learning Resources.
  • Record presentation using CaptureSpace.

By Day 7

Submit a narrated PowerPoint presentation using Kaltura Media that includes 11 to 12 slides.

  • Each slide should be written using bullet points, meaning no long paragraphs of written text should be in the slides.
  • Include a brief narration of less than 30 seconds for each slide (i.e., the narration takes the place of any written paragraphs, while the bullet points provide context and cues for the audience to follow along).

Your presentation should address the following:

  • Identify the presenting problem for the case study you selected. (Remember the presenting problem has to be framed from the perspective of role theory. For example, the presenting problem can be framed within the context of role functioning).
  • Identify all the relevant roles assumed by the client.
  • Analyze the social expectations and social and cultural norms revolving around the role, social position, and role scripts of one of the roles assumed by the client.
  • Explain the role and social position of the social worker in working with the client in the case study.
  • Describe how the role(s) and social position(s) assumed by the social worker will influence the relationship between the social worker and the client.
  • Identify three assessment questions that are guided by role theory that you will ask the client to better understand the problem.
  • Identify and describe two interventions that are aligned with the presenting problem and role theory.
  • Identify one outcome that you would measure if you were to evaluate one of the interventions you would implement to determine if the intervention is effective.
  • Evaluate one advantage and one limitation in using role theory in understanding the case.

Be sure to:

  • Identify and correctly reference the case study you have chosen.
  • Use literature to support your claims.
  • Use APA formatting and style.
  • Include the reference list on the last slide.

 

Required Readings

Turner, F. J. (Ed.). (2017). Social work treatment: Interlocking theoretical approaches (6th ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Chapter 26: The Psychosocial Framework of Social Work Practice (pp. 411–419)
Chapter 30: Role Theory and Concepts Applied to Personal and Social Change in Social Work (pp. 452–470)

Blakely, T. J., & Dziadosz, G. M. (2008). Case management and social role theory as partners in service delivery. Care Management Journals, 9(3), 106–112. doi:10.1891/1521-0987.9.3.106

Note: You will access this article from the Walden Library databases.

Dulin, A. M. (2007). A lesson on social role theory: an example of human behavior in the social environment theory. Advances in Social Work, 8(1), 104–112. Retrieved from https://advancesinsocialwork.iupui.edu/index.php/advancesinsocialwork/article/view/134

Document: Worksheet: Dissecting a Theory and Its Application to a Case Study (Word document)

Walden Library. (n.d.-a). Library webinar archives: Webinars on library skills. Retrieved December 8, 2017, from http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/library/webinararchives/libraryskillswebinars

Browse this site to view webinars that introduce you to the Walden Library, including “Introduction to the Library” and “Search Strategies for New Students”

Walden Library. (n.d.-b). Searching and finding information in the library databases: Overview. Retrieved December 8, 2017, from http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/library/searchingfinding

Walden University: Academic Skills Center. (n.d.-a). Microsoft PowerPoint resources: Quick guide. Retrieved December 8, 2017, from http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/ASC/software/PPT/quickguide

Use this resource to learn skills for creating your PowerPoint presentation.

Document: Theory Into Practice: Four Social Work Case Studies (PDF)

Document: Guide for Creating and Uploading a PowerPoint Presentation (PDF)

Required Media

Laureate Education. (2017a). Theories knowledge check, part 1 [Interactive media]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Document: Theories Knowledge Check, Part 1 Transcript (PDF)

Optional Resources

Healy, K. (2016). After the biomedical technology revolution: Where to now for a bio-psycho-social approach to social work? British Journal of Social Work, 46(5), 1446–1462. https://doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcv051

MOCK IRB APPLICATION EXERCISE

This is a 2 part assignment.  Complete the application and answer the questions listed below in a 3-page Word Document.

The previous completed application is attached with the blank one for this assignment.

Psychological experiments that are conducted on human or animal subjects must go through a review by an administrative body known as an Institutional Review Board (IRB).  Approval must be gained by an IRB before a study can be funded or conducted.  Researchers, whether they are faculty, students, or other affiliated personnel, must complete a detailed application that is presented to the IRB for its review.

APUS has an IRB, much like that of any research-producing university or institution.  Attached you will find an amended version of the actual application that researchers must submit to the IRB in advance of conducting psychological research. ***This is a mock version of the application.  You are not actually submitting anything to the real APUS IRB while conducting this exercise.

For Part 2 of this exercise, you will use the completed application attached completed earlier in the semester.  These are experiments that have already been conducted and published.  Several are “classic” experiments in social psychology of which you should already be aware.  You will read the published article carefully and then you will take the knowledge gleaned from the article to complete the IRB application AS IF you were the Principal Investigator applying for approval to conduct the study.

For some of the questions included on the application, you may need to “stretch” your knowledge a bit.  For example, the published article may say that college students were given extra credit for participation, but may not go into a lot of detail regarding the process used to recruit those students.  In such a situation, you may need to use your imagination to fill in some blanks.

In addition, please remember that the goal here is to put yourself in the principal investigator’s shoes at the time that he/she conducted the experiment.  If the experiment was conducted in the 1970s, for example, remember that the standards for human experimentation were different back then.  Answer the questions as the investigator WOULD have answered them (based upon what you read about the experiment), not as they SHOULD have answered them based upon today’s ethical standards.

Assignment Instructions (Please complete both #1 and #2 below)

1. After carefully reading your article (remember, use the same article attached), please complete the attached document.  The attached document is editable, so please place your responses directly into the document.  Be sure to save the document on your hard drive and then upload it into the slot for the assignment.

2. After completing the Mock IRB Assignment-Part 2, please answer the following questions in a 3-page Word Document (.docx format) and upload as an attachment to the slot for the assignment.

a. What was the most challenging section of the Mock IRB Application-Part 2 to complete?  Why was it challenging?

b. Were there any sections of the Mock IRB Application-Part 2 that you felt the authors of your article did not adequately address (either in terms of not doing it or not addressing it in their write-up of their Method/Procedure)?

c.  If you were actually the Principal Investigator of this study, what might you do differently in order to adequately address all the questions asked on Part 2 of this Mock IRB Application?

d. How do you think ethical standards have changed (if at all) since the Principal Investigator of your chosen study filled out his/her own IRB Application?

Personality Theories In The Psychodynamic Tradition

For your initial post, you will examine the contributions of a theorist who was instrumental in developing the psychoanalytic theoretical approach based on the first letter of your last name. Please see below for your assigned theorist.

Carl Jung: last names beginning with D through G:

Jones, R. A. (2013). Jung’s “Psychology with the Psyche” and the behavioral sciences. Behavioral Sciences (2076-328X), 3(3), 408-417. doi:10.3390/bs3030408

  • The full-text version of this article can be accessed through the EBSCOhost database in the Ashford University Library.

Mcmillan, F. N., Iii, & Rosen, D. H. (2012). Synchronicity at the crossroads: Frank McMillan Jr., Forrest Bess, and Carl Jung. Jung Journal, 6(2), 86-102. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/jung.2012.6.2.86

  • The full-text version of this article can be accessed through the ProQuest database in the Ashford University Library.

Carl Jung: last names beginning with D through G:

Jones, R. A. (2013). Jung’s “Psychology with the Psyche” and the behavioral sciences. Behavioral Sciences (2076-328X), 3(3), 408-417. doi:10.3390/bs3030408

  • The full-text version of this article can be accessed through the EBSCOhost database in the Ashford University Library.

In addition to the required articles for your assigned theorist, research a minimum of one peer-reviewed article from the Ashford University Library on your theorist’s research and work within the field of psychology. Examine and describe your theorist’s contribution(s) to psychodynamic theory. Examine the major theoretical approaches proposed by your theorist including any related research methods and/or assessment instruments associated with him or her. Evaluate any issues and cultural considerations associated with your assigned theorist. Analyze and describe how the APA’s Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct might affect the implementation of your theorist’s personality assessments. Assess the types of personality measurements and research designs associated with your assigned theorist and describe how they have evolved. Your initial post should be a minimum of 400 words.

Discussion: Evaluating Research Questions And Qualitative Research Designs

Just as in quantitative research, when researchers set out to design a qualitative research study, they are guided by its purpose, and their research questions align with their selected approach and the data that will be collected.

As you learned in previous weeks, alignment means that a research study possesses clear and logical connections among all of its various components. In addition to considering alignment, qualitative researchers must also consider the ethical implications of their design choice, including, for example, what their choice means for participant recruitment, procedures, and privacy.

For this Discussion, you will evaluate qualitative research questions in assigned journal articles in your discipline and consider the alignment of theory, problem, purpose, research questions, and design. You will also identify the type of qualitative research design the authors used and explain how it was implemented.

With these thoughts in mind, refer to the Journal Articles document for your assigned articles for this Discussion. If your last name starts with A through I, use Article A. If your last name starts with J through R, use Article B. If your last name starts with S through Z, use Article C.

By Day 4

Post a critique of the research study in which you:

  • Evaluate the research questions using the Research Questions and Hypotheses  Checklist as a guide
  • Identify the type of qualitative research approach used and explain how the researchers  implemented the design
  • Analyze alignment among the theoretical or conceptual framework, problem, purpose, research questions, and design

Be sure to support your Main Issue Post and Response Post with reference to the week’s Learning Resources and other scholarly evidence in APA Style.

Read a selection of your classmates’ postings.

 

If your last name starts with S through Z, use Article C.

Article C:

Arando, S., Gago, M., Jones, D. C., & Kato, T. (2015). Efficiency in employee-owned enterprises: An econometric case study of Mondragon. International Labor Review68(2), 398–425. doi: doi:10.1177/0019793914564966

Case Analysis – Collaborating With Outside Providers

4 Full Pages Well-Written Paper   Due 1/8/2018 NO LATER   NO PLAGIARISM

                               PSY 650 Week Three Treatment Plan Attached

Due 1/8/2018 NO LATER         PLEASE FOLLOW DIRECTIONS

Prior to beginning work on this assignment, read the PSY650 Week Three Treatment Plan Preview the document and Case 9: Bulimia Nervosa in Gorenstein and Comer (2014). Please also read the Waller, Gray, Hinrichsen, Mounford, Lawson, and Patient (2014) “Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Bulimia Nervosa and Atypical Bulimic Nervosa: Effectiveness in Clinical Settings,”Halmi (2013) “Perplexities of Treatment Resistance in Eating Disorders,” and DeJesse and Zelman (2013) “Promoting Optimal Collaboration Between Mental Health Providers and Nutritionists in the Treatment of Eating Disorders” articles.

Assess the evidence-based practices implemented in this case study. In your paper, please include the following.

  • 1. Explain the connection between each theoretical orientation used by Dr. Heston and the treatment intervention plans utilized in the case.
  • 2. Describe the cognitive-behavioral model of the maintenance of bulimia nervosa.
  • 3. Explain why Rita was reluctant to participate in Dr. Heston’s request for her to keep a record of her eating behaviors. Use information from the Halmi (2013) article “Perplexities of Treatment Resistance in Eating Disorders” to help support your statements.
  • 4. Recommend outside providers (psychiatrists, medical doctors, nutritionists, social workers, holistic practitioners, etc.) to the assist Rita in achieving her treatment goals. Use information from the DeJesse and Zelman (2013) “Promoting Optimal Collaboration between Mental Health Providers and Nutritionists in the Treatment of Eating Disorders” article to help support your recommendations.
  • 5. Describe some of the challenges and ethical issues that Dr. Heston may encounter when working collaboratively with the professionals that you recommended.  Apply ethical principles and standards of psychology relevant to your description of Dr. Heston’s potential collaboration with outside providers.
  • 6. Evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment interventions implemented by Dr. Heston, supporting your statements with information from the case and two to three peer-reviewed articles from the Ashford University Library.
  • 7. Recommend three additional treatment interventions that would be appropriate in this case. The recommended articles for this week may be useful in generating your response to this criterion. Justify your selections with information from the case.
  • 4 Full Pages Well-Written Paper   Due 1/8/2018 NO LATER   NO PLAGIARISM

Unit VIII Research PSY

 Unit VIII Research Paper Comprehensive Assignment Throughout this course, you have taken on the role as an I-O psychologist and considered training plans for the individual PSY 3490, Industrial Organizational Psychology 3 and the team. For Unit VIII, you will expand upon that idea and focus on the organization. Using the plans that you have developed during this course, devise a training plan for your organization that encompasses elements from individual, team, and leadership skills training. Remember to use headings to divide your paper. Be specific in your training solutions. Address the following in your paper: 1. How are stressors likely to impact your organization? 2. What do you think works best at the individual level? 3. What type of lessons can you learn from individual training that carry over into team training and leadership training? 4. Compare and contrast all three training levels in a final discussion section. 5. In your action plan, include methods that you would use to assess and select new employees entering your organization. Your paper should be a minimum of three pages in length; you should include at least three outside sources for support, one of which may be your textbook. Use APA headings throughout your paper. Your paper, including your references page, should be in APA format. Information about accessing

The Impact Of Social Media And Technology

Twenty-first century middle school students are intellectually and socially different from any generation that has come before them. The advent of texting, social networking, and social media, and the ease at which they can navigate the Internet has connected these learners to their friends and mass media 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. While there is no doubt that social media has inadvertently caused many adolescents to become computer savvy and technologically adept, how might it strengthen or weaken the bonds of adolescent friendships? When parents and adolescents are “ friends” online, does it help parents to get a better sense of who their adolescents are, or does it cause bickering and opportunities for further rebellion? How might social media confirm or refute gender stereotypes? How might it serve as a channel for bullying?

For this Discussion, review this week’s media, “Perspectives: The Adolescent World.” Then, consider the overall impacts that social media and technology have on the development and decision making of adolescents.

Post by Day 4 an explanation of the potential impacts social media and technology may have on adolescent development. Include developmental, environmental, and social influences. Explain two ways in which these influences may impact decision making in adolescents. Justify your response with references to this week’s Learning Resources and the current literature. Be specific.

References:

Must include-   Broderick, P. C., & Blewitt, P. (2015). The life span: Human development for helping professionals (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

  • Chapter 9, “Physical, Cognitive, and Identity Development in Adolescence” (review pp. 324-367)
  • Chapter 10, “The Social World of Adolescence” (pp. 368-407)
  • Bessant, J. (2008). Hard wired for risk: Neurological science, ‘the adolescent brain’ and developmental theory. Journal of Youth Studies, 11(3), 347–360.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
  • Guilamo-Ramos, V., Jaccard, J., Dittus, P., & Bouris, A. M. (2006). Parental expertise, trustworthiness, and accessibility: Parent-adolescent communication and adolescent risk behavior. Journal of Marriage and Family, 68(5), 1229–1246.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
  • Jaccard, J., Blanton, H., & Dodge, T. (2005). Peer influences on risk behavior: An analysis of the effects of a close friend. Developmental Psychology, 41(1), 135–147.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
  • Kuss, D. J., & Griffiths, M. D. (2011).Excessive online social networking: Can adolescents become addicted to Facebook? Education and Health, 29(4), 68–71.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
  • Reich, S. M., Subrahmanyam, K., & Espinoza, G. (2012). Friending, IMing, and hanging out face-to-face: Overlap in adolescents’ online and offline socialnetworks. Developmental Psychology, 48(2), 356–368.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
  • Strasburger, V. (2010). Children, adolescents, and the media: Seven key issues. Pediatric Annals, 39(9), 556–564.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Sullivan, C. J., Childs, K. K., & O’Connell, D. (2010). Adolescent risk behavior subgroups: An empirical assessment. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39(5), 541–562.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Complete Your Paper Abstract, Highlighting The Key Findings And Conclusions. On The Movie Antwone Fisher

Abnormal Psychology: Antwone Fisher

The Antwone Fisher is a movie that offers a narrative of one of the characters struggling with his past. The movie features the name of the main character, Antwone Fisher. He serves as a Navy petty officer and exhibits challenges getting over his past. The killing of his father before his birth and abandonment by her mother are seen as having adverse impacts on his life. Moreover, Antwone Fisher is Brough up in an abusive environment by Ms. Tate and Reverend Tate. After having an argument with Ms. Tate, the foster parents push Antwone Fisher to the streets. The event subjects him to a life of homelessness and problems. Nonetheless, he later joins the navy. While in the ship, Antwone Fisher engages in a confrontation with other crew members.

Consequently, he is sent to see a psychiatrist, Dr. Davenport. However, the first session with the doctor does not start as he fails to talk about his condition. After some period, the two develop close ties and working relationships, and Antwone Fisher opens up about his condition. The first scene of the movie presents the main character reflecting on his early years as a boy. He is standing in solitude in a ban (Searight et al. 2014). A man takes his hand and leads him inside the ban where there is a table of food. Before starting to eat, gunshots and the sounds of a cow disrupt him. The part is of great importance in understanding the issues facing the character. While sitting at the table, he is sounded by all his ancestors. The part signifies that Antwone Fisher yearns to have a sense of belonging and acceptance. On the other hand, taking the lead position in the table points that he wish to feel proud of his family.

However, the lack of familial upbringing creates a feeling of shame. There are many recollections that offer the views a glimpse of Antwone Fisher’s life. After waking up, he progresses to the bathroom where he washes his face. While wiping his face, a Caucasian asks Antwone Fisher “is there something on your face?” While the question is not offensive, Antwone Fisher becomes violent and punches and chocks the shipmate. The incidence is one of the indications that the main character has mental problems. It is central to understand the factors that drive the anger and its link to different mental conditions.

During some of the visits to Dr. Davenport, Antwone Fisher recounts some of the past abuses and neglection. Despite her release from prison, her mother fails to come to claim him from Mr. and Mrs. Tale. Antwone Fisher explains that the event is hard to bear and has adverse implications on his life. During the second session with the Doctor, he highlights instances where Mrs. Tale would psychologically abuse him. Mrs. Tale often made racial remarks that are derogatory to him. The events point that the main character suffers from the lack of affection from his parents and family (Searight et al. 2014). There are chances that he is suffering from dispersion due to the persistent stress. In a typical setting, children are availed with support and security from the parents. Antwone Fisher explains that his best moments as the times when Mrs. Tale would prepare pancakes.

These movements are a representation of the times that Antwone Fisher felt free from the depression and the cruel world. However, these moments are rare. In the events that led to him being kicked out of the house, he had taken the shoe that Mrs. Tale often used to beat him. During these moments, Antwone Fisher feels a sense of pride and control. It creates the impression that since his birth, he did not have control over his life. The lack of freedom and the depressing moments are the trigger factors to the mental condition. Moreover, as time progresses, the session changes into a father/ son moment. The doctor makes the discoing to cross the patient/ therapist boundary.

It is a conscious move by Dr. Davenport as it serves to give Antwone Fisher a sense of belonging. Although the therapist makes efforts to change the patent’s behavior, he is engaged in another fight whole on liberty (Searight et al. 2014). After enquiring the trigger factors of the incidences, Antwone Fisher reveals of past sexual harassment by a babysitter. The incidence points that Fisher has points that create dissonance with his only reaction being violence. Nonetheless, the trigger factors stem from his past and mental condition. His past increases the vulnerability to anger and creates a feeling of shame. It is thus critical to focus on the past events as this would allow for healing.

The abandonment by his parents, the racial discrimination and sexual abuses are some of the incidences that darken his past. He also lacks a family structure which would serve his support. Anything that reminds him of the past causes a confrontation with other people. It implies that he is ashamed of the past. Although the doctor pushes Antwone Fisher to find his parents, Fisher is of the idea that he only required the doctor. Although the doctor breaks the news that the session will not continue anymore, Fisher is not aggressive (Macfarlane, 2004). Rather than being violent, he recounts the events that led to the killing of his best friend Jesses.

After some time, Antwone Fisher is able to locate his family and wants to show his mother the man he had become (Fisher, 2003). He later retrains to the ship and informs the doctor that he had met his family members. The story is about self-determination and mental conditions that may impact on one life. In this case, Antwone Fisher suffers from depression due to the prolonged stress. During his early years, he had undergone many ordeals. The lack of a family stricture implies that he was venerable to discrimination and other harassments. After finding his family and having a sense of belonging, Antwone Fisher reduces the aggressive episodes. On the contrary, he engages in meaningful activities.

The counseling services with the doctor provide an avenue where Fisher can share envies that troubles. By recollecting the events in the past and locating his parents, he undergoes some healing. The mental condition, in this case, is triggered by environmental factors. As the environment changes and Fisher gets love and reassurance from his family, the mental condition begins to fade. The prevalence of the condition among many people is tied to the inadequacy of support services. Fisher case points that access to quality and regular counseling services can change one’s life. Mental condition subjects patients to a low quality of life and lower the productivity levels. The movie indicates that Fisher has issues getting along with other shipmates thus complicating teamwork and productivity.

Mental conditions such as depression come with many dangers. Fisher has violent episodes which put his life and those of the shipmates to danger. There is the risk of self-harm and constant conflict. However, there are many ways of resolving mental conditions and reducing the occurrence of violent episodes. Therapy is thus an ideal way of coping with the condition. It allows the affected persons to undergo gradual healing. I would still propose counseling services from a therapist. While there is medication to deal with the episodes, counseling is more effective. My argument is based on the fact that such sessions allow for the understanding of the trigger factors as opposed to the episodes. There is thus an increased chance of permanent healing and attaining an improved quality of life.

 

References

Fisher, Antwone Quenton, and Denzel Washington. Antwone Fisher. Twentieth Century Fox Home Entertainment, 2003.

Macfarlane, S. (2004). Antwone Fisher: how dangerous is ‘dr Wonderful’. Australasian Psychiatry12(2), 176-178.

Searight, H. R., & Saunders, D. (2014). Teaching Psychology through Popular Film: A Curriculum. International J. Soc. Sci. & Education4(4).

Social Psychology In Offender Reentry Journal Article

When working with offenders through the process of reentry, it is important to utilize methods and interventions that have been shown to be effective and that help to reduce recidivism. Social psychology has many applications in the rehabilitation of offenders. This assignment asks you to combine these elements to determine how the principles of social psychology apply to evidence-based practices when working with this population of individuals.

Imagine you have been selected to write an article for a peer-reviewed journal on correctional program support services and recidivism.

Write a 1,400- to 1,750-word journal article on evidenced-based practices in offender rehabilitation that reduce recidivism. Include the following:

  1. Describe a minimum of three evidence-based practices utilized in correctional program support services that have shown to reduce the effects of stress, foster happiness, and reduce recidivism in offenders working towards reentry.
  2. Explain the elements of social psychology discussed throughout the course that must be taken into consideration when structuring and administering services to aid offenders in reentering into society.
  3. Describe how methods of stress management can help to reduce recidivism.

Include a minimum of 3 peer-reviewed sources.

Format your journal article according to APA guidelines.